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The so-called thermal power plant is a power plant that uses heat to set electricity and heat as the main purpose. Its downstream customers are thermal companies and thermal companies. The downstream customers of the heating company are mainly urban residents.
The installed capacity of a thermal power plant is limited by the size and nature of the heat load, and the unit size is smaller than that of the main units of the current thermal power plant. Due to both power generation and heat supply, the boiler capacity is greater than that of the same scale thermal power plant. Thermal power plants add more boiler capacity than general thermal power plants for standby, and the amount of water treatment is also large. Moreover, thermal power plants are generally close to the heat load center, often the urban center of densely populated areas. Their water use, land acquisition, demolition, and environmental protection requirements are much higher than those of the same capacity thermal power plant, and a heat pipe network is also built.
The thermal power plants in the northern region, the downstream customers are thermal companies and thermal enterprises. The downstream customers of the heating company are mainly urban residents. Therefore, the customer source is stable and there is basically no market competition. Secondly, the price of thermal power is priced by the government, the operating conditions are stable, and the development of the thermal power industry is favorable.
In general, power plants use condensing units, which only produce electricity to supply power to users. Industrial production and people's daily heat are supplied separately by special industrial boilers and heating boiler rooms. This type of energy production is called thermoelectric production. In thermal power plants, heating units are used. In addition to supplying electric energy, steam turbines or exhaust steam are used as steam-powered or exhausted steam to meet the heat demanded production and life. This type of energy production is called cogeneration.
Considering the energy utilization effect, thermoelectricity production is very unreasonable for energy use: on the one hand, the thermal power conversion process (condensation unit power generation) inevitably produces low-grade heat energy loss (the steam exhaust of the turbine is radiated in the cold source), on the other hand, Allow high-grade thermal energy (steam heat provided by the boiler) to be devalued for low-grade heating. In cogeneration, the fuel chemical energy is converted into high-level heat energy for power generation (high-grade heat energy), and then the low-grade heat energy for the work is used to supply heat to the user, which is in line with the principle of energy use and comprehensive energy use. Therefore, the characteristic of a thermal power plant is that the primary energy utilization is relatively reasonable, and the energy supply according to the quality, the energy used by the cascades, can be used to the full extent, so that the entire energy supply system of the region can save energy.
From the perspective of heating mode: the heating mode has two categories: decentralized heating and central heating. The heat is distributed locally at the user's location. Due to the limitation of the heating scale, only small boilers with low parameter thermal efficiency (thermal efficiency of about 50%) can be used. However, heating by thermal power plants forms district heating. Due to the large scale of heating, large boilers with high parameters and high efficiency (with a thermal efficiency of more than 85%) can be used, which greatly improves the energy utilization efficiency and saves fuel.
In terms of environmental pollution, the use of coal is reduced due to the central heating of thermal power plants, the amount of pollutants is also reduced, the trouble of removing coal from coal is also reduced, and the large-capacity boilers are equipped with high-efficiency dust collector equipment and high chimneys, so that the degree of environmental pollution is also Greatly reduced.
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